The photographs were taken using Nikon Digital SLR cameras, latterly a D800, with Nikkor and, occasionally, Sigma lenses.

All images were recorded in RAW format. Manipulation using Adobe Bridge and Photoshop was kept to a minimum.

High Dynamic Range images were created using Photomatix Pro either with TIFF images (3 or 5) from bracketed exposures or on TIFF images created from a single DNG file with exposures adjusted in Adobe Bridge .

No other composite, montage or overlay techniques have been used.